What are the New Jersey laws on stalking and harassment?

New Jersey's Legal Framework on Stalking and Harassment

In the state of New Jersey, stalking and harassment are considered serious offenses that can result in significant legal consequences for those found guilty. The laws governing these behaviors are designed to protect individuals from unwanted and threatening conduct that can cause emotional distress or fear for personal safety.

Understanding Stalking Laws in New Jersey

Under New Jersey Statute 2C:12-10, stalking is defined as purposely or knowingly engaging in a course of conduct directed at a specific individual that would cause a reasonable person to fear for their safety or the safety of others, or suffer other emotional distress. Stalking often involves following someone, repeatedly committing acts that alarm or seriously annoy the victim, or communicating in ways that cause fear or distress.

Stalking can be classified as a fourth-degree crime but may escalate to a third-degree crime for subsequent offenses or if the perpetrator violates an existing court order. The penalties can include imprisonment, fines, and restraining orders. Notably, New Jersey's Prevention of Domestic Violence Act of 1991 includes stalking as one of the predicate acts that can lead to the issuance of a restraining order.

Harassment Laws in New Jersey

Harassment, as outlined by New Jersey Statute 2C:33-4, involves communication or behavior meant to torment, terrorize, or offend another individual. This includes making communications likely to cause annoyance or alarm, striking or threatening to strike someone, engaging in alarming conduct with no legitimate purpose, or using offensively coarse language in a manner likely to cause annoyance.

Harassment is typically considered a petty disorderly persons offense but can be elevated to a fourth-degree crime if done while serving a term of imprisonment or while on parole or probation for an indictable offense.

Cyber-Harassment in New Jersey

With the rise of digital communication, New Jersey law has expanded to include cyber-harassment. This entails the use of online platforms and electronic communication to harass an individual. Actions such as posting lewd material with intent to emotionally harm, threatening harm through electronic communication, and knowingly sending materials that cause alarm fall under this category.

Historical Reference and Examples

The seriousness of stalking and harassment was underscored by incidents such as the murder of actress Rebecca Schaeffer in 1989, which led states across the US, including New Jersey, to develop more stringent anti-stalking laws. Such laws are not only reactive but proactive; they allow law enforcement agencies to intervene before harassment escalates into more serious crimes.

For example, in 2016, a New Jersey man was convicted of stalking after continuously showing up at his victim's workplace and home despite her clear indications that his attentions were unwelcome. His actions included sending unwanted gifts and messages which led to his arrest and conviction under New Jersey's strict stalking laws.


The state of New Jersey takes stalking and harassment very seriously with comprehensive laws designed to deter such behavior and protect individuals from undue harm. Individuals experiencing these behaviors should report them immediately to law enforcement agencies who are equipped to use these laws to provide necessary protection and pursue legal action against offenders. Understanding these laws is crucial for both potential victims and those who might inadvertently cross legal boundaries.