How does Michigan's Friend of the Court system work?

Overview of Michigan's Friend of the Court System

In Michigan, the Friend of the Court (FOC) system plays a pivotal role in managing domestic relations cases, especially those involving child custody, parenting time, and support issues. Established by statute, the FOC is an arm of the circuit court that assists judges by handling these complex and sensitive matters. The objective of the FOC is to ensure that the needs and rights of children are a primary focus during legal proceedings.

Services Provided by the Friend of the Court

The FOC offers a range of services designed to promote the best interests of children within the context of family law. These services include:

How the FOC Operates

The process begins when one party files a motion with the circuit court seeking relief related to custody, support, or parenting time. The FOC then becomes involved to either facilitate an agreement between parties or make recommendations to the judge. If an agreement cannot be reached through mediation, the FOC can conduct a formal investigation and present its findings in a report to the court, which will be considered during court proceedings.

Historical Context

The concept of a 'Friend of the Court' has evolved over time. In Michigan, it can be traced back to early 20th century efforts to better protect children's welfare in divorce cases. As societal attitudes towards divorce and family dynamics have changed, so too has the function of the FOC, adapting to new challenges and policy shifts focusing on children's best interests.

Case Example: Enforcement Action

An example of how the FOC operates can be seen in enforcement actions. If a parent fails to pay court-ordered child support, the FOC can take measures such as income withholding orders or tax refund interceptions to compel payment. The effectiveness of these actions underscores the FOC's commitment to ensuring that parental responsibilities are met for the benefit of children.


The Friend of the Court system in Michigan serves as a vital intermediary between families in dispute and the judicial process. By offering services like mediation, investigation, and enforcement related to family law issues, it aims to facilitate fair outcomes that prioritize children's well-being.