Illinois Voluntary Acknowledgment of Paternity: What are the legal implications of signing this document?

Understanding the Voluntary Acknowledgment of Paternity in Illinois

In Illinois, as in many other states, establishing paternity is a significant legal step for unmarried parents. The Voluntary Acknowledgment of Paternity (VAP) form is a document that allows the biological father to acknowledge paternity without going through a court order. It's critical for parents to understand the legal implications of signing this document, as it affects the child’s and both parents’ rights and responsibilities.

Legal Implications of Signing the VAP

Signing a VAP has immediate legal consequences. It establishes the signing male as the legal father, and his name is added to the birth certificate. He gains rights to custody and visitation but also assumes obligations for child support and providing health insurance, if applicable.

Once signed, there is a limited time in which either parent can rescind the acknowledgment – typically 60 days after signing or before a court order related to the child is entered, whichever comes first. After this period, challenging paternity becomes significantly more difficult and requires evidence such as DNA tests.

Parental Rights and Responsibilities

The acknowledgment of paternity grants the father legal rights to seek custody or visitation. However, without a court order, it does not automatically confer custody rights. Mothers retain physical custody until a court ruling says otherwise.

For fathers, signing the VAP is an important step toward securing their role in their child's life. For mothers, it provides a clear path to obtaining child support from the biological father.

Impact on Child Support

The establishment of paternity through a VAP can facilitate child support proceedings. The Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services' Division of Child Support Services uses this acknowledgment to pursue child support payments from the non-custodial parent.

Implications for Inheritance and Benefits

Paternity acknowledgment also has implications for inheritance rights and access to benefits like Social Security and veterans’ benefits. It ensures that children have rights to inherit from their fathers and vice versa.

Considerations Before Signing

Before signing a VAP, both parties should be certain about paternity. If there are doubts, genetic testing should be pursued before acknowledging paternity. Once established through a signed VAP, disputing paternity requires legal action and substantial proof.

It's also advisable for both parties to seek independent legal counsel before signing any legally binding documents such as a VAP.


The Illinois Voluntary Acknowledgment of Paternity is an important document with extensive legal implications. By understanding what it entails, both parties can make informed decisions that impact their lives and the well-being of their child.