Legal issues surrounding the disclosure of adoption records in New Jersey

Understanding Adoption Records Disclosure in New Jersey

Adoption is a life-changing process for all parties involved—the birth parents, the adoptive parents, and most importantly, the adopted child. In New Jersey, as in many other states, adoption records have traditionally been sealed to protect the privacy of those involved. However, legal issues and perspectives on the disclosure of these records have evolved over time, raising questions about access, privacy rights, and the best interests of the adopted individuals.

The Evolution of Adoption Records Laws

In the early to mid-20th century, adoption records were commonly sealed to maintain confidentiality. This was done to protect all parties from the social stigma of illegitimacy and unwed parenthood that was prevalent during that era. As societal attitudes changed and as adoptees began to seek information about their biological heritage for health and personal reasons, many argued that they had a right to access their original birth certificates (OBCs) and adoption records.

New Jersey's approach to this issue has seen significant changes. For instance, in 1940, adoption records were sealed by law in New Jersey. It wasn't until decades later that this policy was revisited. A notable shift occurred in 2014 with the passage of the New Jersey Adoptees' Birthright Act, which came into effect on January 1, 2017. This law allows adult adoptees born in New Jersey to obtain their original birth certificates without requiring a court order.

Current Legal Framework for Disclosure

The New Jersey Adoptees' Birthright Act represents a landmark change in the state's approach to adoption records. Under this act, adult adoptees (18 years or older), direct descendants, siblings, or spouses of adopted persons, adoptive parents, legal guardians or other legal representatives can request and obtain an adopted person's original birth certificate and other related documents.

However, there are provisions to protect birth parents' privacy as well. Birth parents who placed a child for adoption before August 1, 2015, were given the opportunity to redact their name from the OBC until December 31, 2016. They can also indicate their preference regarding contact with the adoptee—direct contact, contact through an intermediary, or no contact at all.

Challenges and Considerations

The disclosure of adoption records raises complex emotional and legal issues. For adoptees seeking knowledge about their origins, accessing these records can be crucial for building a sense of identity or obtaining important medical history information. On the other hand, birth parents might have chosen adoption based on assurances of confidentiality that are now being reconsidered.

Courts have grappled with balancing these competing interests. In cases where birth parents have not consented to disclosure, adoptees may still petition a court for access to their records. Judges will weigh factors such as the reasons for the request and the potential impact on all parties involved before making a decision.


The legal landscape surrounding the disclosure of adoption records in New Jersey reflects an ongoing effort to balance the rights and interests of adoptees with those of birth parents. While laws like the New Jersey Adoptees' Birthright Act have made it easier for many adopted individuals to access their OBCs and associated records, complexities remain in ensuring that the privacy and wishes of birth parents are also respected.